Planning a Castle
In planning a castle, all the latest technologies were taken into consideration. From practical things, like putting a well inside the walls, to ingenious attention to detail, like the direction a spiral staircase rotated, many things had to be thought out.
The outermost walls of the castle usually enclosed the town. A long, usually small wall, it was reinforced with U shaped towers every so often. Circular towers were placed at corners.
The first defense of the castle proper was the outer ward, with its medium size walls. There would often be a moat on the outside, as an extra defense. Often, the wall would also have a slightly angled portion at the bottom on the outside called a batter or a talus.
The innermost part of the castle, called the enciente or inner ward, was the toughest part of the castle. It, like the rest of the castle, had U shaped towers on the walls, and circular towers on the corners. The idea behind the U shaped tower was to keep the wall segmented. A plank across the inner end of the U was the only way to get from one wall section to the next. If the enemies gained the wall in one spot, the defenders could simply remove the plank to deny them access to the rest of the walls. The round corner towers were designed to be defended separately, each with its own defenses and storage rooms for food.